Intellectual property rights (IPRs), conventionally seen as quite distinct, are increasingly overlapping with one another in Europe. There are several reasons for this: the expansion of IPRs beyond their traditional borders, the creation of new IPRs at the EU level, the exploitation of gaps in the law by shrewd lawyers, and the use of unfair competition as an alternative when IPRs are either not available at all or have expired. The convergence of several IPRs on the same subject-matter poses a problem. As they are normally envisaged as water-tight categories, there are very few rules which cater for the sort of regime clash that any overlap of IPRs necessarily entails. This book's examines the appropriate rules to regulate overlaps and thereby avoid regime conflicts and undue unstructured expansion of IPRs. The book looks at the practical consequences of each overlap at the international, European, and national levels (where the laws of France, the UK, and Germany are reviewed). It then analyzes the reasons for the prohibition or authorization of overlaps. This analysis enables the determination of criteria that can be used to (re)map the overlaps to achieve appropriateness and legitimacy. The overarching principle - which guides this mapping exercise, and which is common to all IPRs - is that of free competition; IPRs are an exception to this principle, though a public domain must exist.
This is an innovative study of middle-class behaviour and property relations in English towns in Georgian and Victorian Britain. Through the lens of wills, family papers, property deeds, account books and letters, the author offers a reading of the ways in which middle-class families survived and surmounted the economic difficulties of early industrial society. He argues that these were essentially 'networked' families created and affirmed by a 'gift' network of material goods, finance, services and support, with property very much at the centre of middle-class survival strategies. His approach combines microhistorical studies of individual families with a broader analysis of the national and even international networks within which these families operated. The result is a significant contribution to the history, and to debates about the place of structural and cultural analysis in historical understanding.
Hernando de Soto is one of the world's leading public intellectuals. His books The Mystery of Capital and The Other Path have had a tremendous impact on debates about international development. But his work also has been controversial, and some of his arguments have received sustained criticism. One of de Soto's core ideas is that the institution of private property is necessary for the proper functioning of a market economy. Yet even though many property scholars closely follow de Soto's work, his ideas have been neglected in property law scholarship. And although his work has been widely discussed in the context of property in developing countries, it has not had the same impact on the property issues that arise in mature market economies like the United States. This new collection seeks to remedy this neglect, bringing together a diverse group of scholars to apply de Soto's work to a wide range of contemporary issues in property law and theory. The important contribution it makes to debates and controversies in property law, as well as in related economic fields, will appeal to scholars of both law and economics.
International Review of Cytology presents current advances and comprehensive reviews in cell biology - both plant and animal. Authored by some of the foremost scientists in the field, each volume provides up-to-date information and directions for future research. Articles in this volume address biosynthesis and alternate targeting of the lysosomal cysteine protesase cathepsin L; microtubule-associated proteins and their essential roles during mitosis; molecular and functional analysis of the dictyostelium centrosome; polytene chromosomes; and insect basic leucine zipper proteins and their role in cyclic AMP dependent regulation of gene expression.
A clear and up-to-date guide to the UK tax system for surveyors and valuers which demonstrates land valuation for taxation purposes.
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