Common property economics defines and clarifies the theoretical distinction between open access and common property and empirically tests the adequacy of resource allocation under common property and empirically tests the property in comparison with private property. Group use of natural resources has often received the blame for overexploitation and mismanagement, whether of fisheries, grazing land, oil and gas pools, groundwater, or wildlife. In this book two types of group use are identified: open access and utilization without any controls on extraction rates, a situation in which resource overexploitation often occurs. In contrast, common property refers to the situation where the group controls the access to and extraction rates of the resource. The common property solutions differ from those associated with open access. The nonoptimality of open access is demonstrated with graphic, game theoretic, and mathematical models. The necessary and sufficient conditions for common property to overcome the difficulties of open access are examined. Stevenson discusses historical examples, the basis in legal concepts, the contrast with public goods, the formation, and the stability of common property. In a detailed, empirical study of alpine grazing in Switzerland, the author compares the performance of common property with that of private property. He also notes the similarity in structure between the Swiss grazing commons and the English open field system.
With this work, Martin Bader examines how companies can take an int- lectual property lead during the early stages of inter-firm research and - velopment (R&D) collaborations. Previously, little research has inves- gated the management of patents in the early phases of the innovation process. Furthermore, there is a dearth of research on patent management in the service industry sector, in which intellectual property management remains a new concept. Bader offers a detailed examination of the process by considering the service industry sector and analyzes a current, relevant, complex problem prominent in management research. The research at hand stems from two phenomena, both of which are based on knowledge gains achieved in the area of intellectual property management in recent years. First, the number of announced patent app- cations has increased by 20 30% per year even without considering multiple patent registrations in several countries. Second, the number of collaborative agreements in the innovation process has simultaneously - creased. However, many R&D collaborations eventually turn out to be - successful, so the question arises: To whom does the intellectual property generated by a collaboration belong? This ownership often is decided and specified during the early phases of the R&D process."
Intellectual Property in Global Governance critically examines the evolution of international intellectual property law-making from the build up to the TRIPS Agreement, through the TRIPS and post-TRIPS era. The book focuses on a number of thematic intellectual property issue linkages, exploring the formal and informal institutional interactions and multi-stakeholder holder intrigues implicated in the global governance of intellectual property. Using examples from bio-technology, bio-diversity, bio-prospecting and bio-piracy it investigates the shift or concentration in the focus of innovation from physical to life sciences and the ensuing changes in international intellectual property law making and their implications for intellectual property jurisprudence. It examines the character of the reception, resistance and various nuanced reactions to the changes brought about by the TRIPS Agreement, exploring the various institutional sites and patterns of such responses, as well as the escalation in the issue-linkages associated with the concept and impact of intellectual property law.
Drawing upon multiple methodological approaches including law and legal theory; regime theory, globalization and global governance Chidi Oguamanam explores the intellectual property dynamics in the "Global Knowledge Economy" focusing on digitization and information revolution phenomenon and the concept of a post-industrial society. The book articulates an agenda for global governance of intellectual property law in the 21st century and speculates on the future of intellectual property in North-South relations.
An account of motives and motivations behind Japan's accomplishments, this work emphasizes the role of a Confucian impetus.
Taking a global viewpoint, this volume addresses issues arising from recent developments in the enduring and topical debates over Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs) and their relationship to Intellectual Property (IP). The work examines changing responses to the growing acceptance and prevalence of GMOs. Drawing together perspectives from several of the leading international scholars in this area, the contributions seek to break away from analysis of safety and regulation and examine the diversity of ways the law and GMOs have become entangled. This collection presents the start of a much broader engagement with GMOs and law. As GMO technology becomes increasingly more complex and embedded in our lives, this volume will be a useful resource in leading further discussion and debate about GMOs in academia, in government and among those working on future policy.
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